Vol. 3, No. 12                                                                                              December 1999

Post-Secondary Education Options For Low-Income Adults

By Pamela Friedman


The work requirements and time limits mandated by the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant, along with a steadily growing economy, have resulted in a rapid decline of welfare caseloads. According to statistics from the Administration on Children and Families, employment rates among former welfare recipients and other low-income workers are on the increase. However, much of this employment is in entry-level jobs, at or near the minimum wage, positions that may not enable workers to move out of poverty, improve their lives and build a stable economic future. These workers need to develop advanced skills to enable them to move up the career ladder. Providing access to post-secondary education is one approach to helping workers advance.

Although the final TANF regulations allow the states flexibility in using federal TANF funds to support post-secondary education for participants, federal restrictions regarding work requirements and the definition of work activities still apply. There are four types of costs that might be involved in a state effort to support post-secondary education. They are tuition, other educational costs and fees, child care, transportation and other support services, and cash assistance to meet basic living costs while attending school. Federal TANF funds and state Maintenance of Effort (MOE) funds can be used for any of these costs.

States seeking to provide TANF participants and other low-income workers continued access to post-secondary education as a source for skills enhancement may wish to look at a variety of options to augment federal TANF funds. They may choose to use MOE funds to purchase educational services for current recipients or other low-income workers. They may also choose to more aggressively pursue educational assistance for current or former TANF recipients from non-welfare related training and education resources that are traditionally available to low-income workers and other students. Looking beyond TANF to fund these programs opens the door to the creation of innovative public-private partnerships, where businesses and post-secondary education institutions can take a proactive role in the design and implementation of programs specifically designed to meet local employment needs and the continuing education needs of workers.

This Issue Note examines the role of local business leaders, community colleges and universities in the design and implementation of community college and other college and university based programs that will enable low-income workers to gain the skills necessary for job advancement. It explores strategies for post-secondary education within TANF, other supports for students, and public private partnerships that meet the needs of workers.

Policy Issues

In deciding what policies and funding options best meet state and local needs, state agencies, educational institutions and employers may want to consider the following policy issues.

Why should state agencies and/or state educational institutions be concerned with the educational needs of low-income workers? Research shows a strong correlation between education levels and earnings (See Cohen, 1998 and Strawn, 1999). The majority of low-income workers, both TANF recipients and others, who have not had access to post-secondary education, work in entry-level jobs that pay minimum wage, provide limited or no benefits, and offer little chance for career advancement. The shift in the U.S. economy away from a manufacturing base and toward a service sector base has denied low-skilled workers access to previously available jobs. In addition, the emergence of the global economy and advances in technology have eliminated the need for some low-skill workers in the United States and have also decreased the availability of career ladders and opportunities for advancement for these workers. Providing an opportunity for TANF recipients and other low-income workers to build their skills is a key component of any strategy to reduce poverty and increase economic wellbeing. Well structured investments in continuing education can result in increased earnings capacity, promote self-sufficiency, and eliminate the need for continued welfare receipt. In addition, states would benefit from increased tax revenue.

How does an agency or institution determine the content of educational programs needed by low-income workers? An effective education strategy will focus on preparing students to meet the current and perspective needs of the workplace. As a result, it is critical to begin with the identification of these needs. One way to do so is through a thorough understanding of the local labor market. Local employers, agency staff and educators can collaborate to identify employment fields that are growing, those that are shrinking, the skills needed in the local job market and the types of jobs that offer the most promising prospects for job seekers. They can then develop broad-based, employment driven curricula that concentrate on work-specific skills enhancement. Workers who successfully complete training can be certified in a specific skill area, and employers can guarantee placements for graduates. Employers in turn can participate in on-site assessment of the skills needed for mastery of these jobs.

In Belton Texas, the Central Workforce Development Board involved employers and educators in a number of different ways. Employers were asked to confirm the list of emerging occupations identified for the local area and review the description of skills needed to enter jobs in these occupations. Both educators and employers then thought through the curricula needed by workers to transition from low to high skill. Employers were also active in identifying occupations appropriate for work experience positions. Participants simultaneously received the work experience and job-related customized training to enable them to succeed in "medium-wage, medium-skill" jobs, each with a career path. Nearly 150 local educators and employers agreed to participate in this work experience program for TANF recipients. Contact: Linda Angel, (254) 939-3771, ext 324.

The Center for Employment Training’s (CET) short –term, vocational/education and basic skills programs are developed with the input of local employers and human resource managers who work together to identify career paths within a given field and develop training programs based on specific job requirements. The employers involved comprise an Industrial Advisory Board, whose role is to assist CET through fundraising, equipment donation, and input on curriculum. The boards meet annually to review program content and recommend equipment upgrades. In addition, technical advisory committees, composed of business supervisors, advise the program on the content specifics of each technical skill taught at CET. CET currently operates 25 sites in seven states and the program has also been replicated by other organizations in seven additional states. Contact: Linda Luther, (408)287-7924.

How can businesses be convinced to provide the time and other support that will allow low-income workers to participate in educational programs? If business leaders recognize that they will benefit in the long run, convincing them to provide workers with opportunities to continue educational pursuits is not difficult. Many employers are currently faced with a shortage of qualified workers. Enabling their employees to pursue additional education and training, either by providing training on-site or through release time or other arrangements, can ultimately reduce the costs of turnover and recruitment. Employers that recognize the value and importance of transferable skills might also be encouraged to provide their workers with an opportunity to develop additional work-related skills. In addition to providing workers with increased access to a variety of jobs, it also enables employers to fill vacancies from within. Increased skill levels among workers also positively affects local economic development efforts.

Many times, preconceived notions about the commitment and abilities of former welfare recipients and other low-income workers discourage businesses from targeting this population for jobs. In fact, some businesses have found that, once employed, these workers have a lower turnover rate than other workers do. In Los Angeles, the Sears Distribution Center, in conjunction with California State University, developed a ten-week English as a Second Language (ESL) course for non-English speaking employees. The ten-week training course, delivered on-site, stresses basic English within the context of the job. Participants attend class three hours a week either before or after their shifts. The success of this venture has led Sears to join with CalState in developing a proposal for the provision of additional English and computer training for employees on site. Contact: Leslie Estrada or Ken Harmon, (323) 223-3171 ext. 202.

How can educational institutions develop and/or structure programs (course content, certification programs, schedules, location etc.) to meet both worker and employer needs? Many low-income workers face a number of obstacles in their pursuit post-secondary degrees. These obstacles include work-related issues such as availability for classes and the often uncoordinated eligibility requirements for available aid programs. For example, Pell grants, while available to less than full-time students, stipulate that students must be making significant progress toward completion of a course of study leading to a work related degree. Many working students find that required classes, which often need to be taken in sequence, are not offered at times when they are free to attend class. As a result, they may not be able to demonstrate progress under existing guidelines. In addition, many students have remedial education needs and remedial education classes may not count as credit bearing courses, making progress toward completion more time consuming. Although a recent study by the National Center for Educational Statistics found that over 80 percent of public two-year colleges allow remedial course credits to qualify for financial aid, they did not count toward completion of a degree or certificate. Moreover, an increasing number of states have set limits on a student’s enrollment in remedial programs, and are expected to require documentation of students’ success in these programs (See Roueche and Roueche, April/May 1999).

State and local social service departments, campuses, and businesses working together may consider designing flexible work/school schedules, including weekend and night courses, to enable students to complete their required classes. The PACE program, offered by California State University at Hayward, offers working students the opportunity to complete coursework by attending classes on nights and weekends. Transfer students who meet eligibility requirements can complete their degree work in just over two years. Contact: Nancy Sadoyama (510) 885-3274.

Local colleges may want to consider other options such as offering compressed semesters. They may also consider offering classes in low-income neighborhood facilities and encouraging the use of distance learning. Another alternative would be to combine services, allowing parents access to distance learning at child care sites or via internet access at home. However, low-income, minority students are much less likely to have the access or training necessary to participate in the "virtual university" (See Gladieux and Swail, 1998). Educational institutions may also want to consider making special efforts to expand access for students from these groups and to integrate the use of technology into their curriculum.

Businesses may also be encouraged to develop on-site or release time programs for their employees. Faced with a staffing shortage, the Tucson Medical Center worked with the Arizona State Department of Employment Security to develop training curricula for health care staff. The Learn, Earn, Advance and Prosper (LEAP) program provides TANF recipients with a 13-week internship in one of three career ladders. Participants spend 4 days a week in on-the-job training and one day in the classroom. Training is provided by a local community-based organization. Program graduates or participants wishing to augment their training can take additional classes, the cost of which is covered by the Department of Employment Security. Program graduates who become permanent hospital staff can also continue their training, after a minimum of three months in their first position, with the Medical Center covering 75 percent of the cost. At the end of 24 months of additional training, employees move into higher paying positions. In the future LEAP hopes to coordinate with a local community college to enable participants to obtain college credits for completing the program. Contact: Katie Brooks (520) 324-2281.

Community colleges have traditionally played an important role as a provider of education to disadvantaged groups and have been pioneers in off-hour and employer-based education. However, their role in regard to welfare reform varies from state to state. While some states encourage the participation of community colleges in state planning related to welfare-to-work, others do not. Nonetheless, many community colleges are now moving toward post-employment education and training. For example, the Illinois Community College Board, with funds from the state Department of Human Services, has expanded its program to provide education and training to TANF recipients, and is now targeting recipients working in low-wage jobs. Illinois now allows college classes to count toward TANF work requirements. As of January 1999, full time attendance, as defined by the educational institution, is considered a work activity. For students with a grade point average over 2.5, there is no additional work requirement and the "clock stops". Contact: Bev Waldrop (217) 785-0159.

In their state budget for 1999, Florida included a provision allowing area coalitions (organizations that implement the state TANF program known as WAGES) exceeding federal TANF work requirement rates to forgo allowable limits for participation in education. The state also created an additional component to WAGES known as Retention Incentive Training Accounts (RITA). RITA is designed to enable former WAGES participants, now in unsubsidized employment, to obtain the skills training necessary to insure job retention and advancement. These accounts, of up to $5,000, provide low-income workers with tuition assistance and also cover the costs of support services and educational materials. Students usually attend classes after hours or negotiate release time directly with employers. To help accommodate their needs, the state community college system is redesigning a number of courses, to be offered as compressed courses or via multiple completion points which are self-contained modules. Contact: Pat Hall (850) 921-5574.

In conjunction with the implementation of welfare reform in California, the state allocated $65 million in general funds annually to the community college system. These funds were set aside for the provision of support services and instruction for TANF recipients enrolled in the colleges or referred from the counties for short-term training. These funds were designed to supplement successful services already in place. The program enables community colleges statewide to be more responsive to the long-term employment needs of their participants. Community colleges are authorized to fund curriculum development, child care services, work-study programs, job development and placement services, and overall coordination with programs and agencies including county welfare offices, employment development department offices, and local providers. This last fall, legislation was passed enabling community colleges to provide additional assistance to former TANF recipients who have been off aid for up to two years and are currently employed in entry-level jobs, temporary employment, or jobs with few or no benefits. Among services now available are job retention services, skills enhancement, and job advancement assistance. Contact: Judy Reichle 916-324-2353.

What financial resources are available to assist working students meet the costs of these programs? States have a variety of options for using TANF funds and state MOE funds to support post-secondary education. TANF and MOE funds may be used to pay for tuition, to provide cash assistance to needy parents participating in post-secondary education, and to provide support services such as child care and transportation. States may also use MOE funds to provide support for education programs outside of the welfare system.

TANF funds can be used to help low-income adults in post-secondary education programs in ways that are not considered "assistance", such as funding a work-study program. Such an approach can reduce concerns regarding time limits because time limits do not apply. In Spring 1999, the Office of Family Assistance published a funding guide to clarify the degree of flexibility in the use of TANF funds, which specifically identifies as an allowable expenditure the use of funds to support opportunities at colleges if they promote advancement to higher paying jobs and self-sufficiency (See U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Spring 1999).

States also have flexibility in their definition of education and training within TANF and may want to consider including accessibility to training via the internet or other technology, or using excess funds to support the provision of other assistance that will enable former recipients to improve their skills and upward mobility, such as computer access. States also have the option of using TANF funds to to provide child care and transportation services to participants, since such support is not considered to be assistance (See Greenberg, September 1999).

Individual Development Accounts (IDAs), matched savings accounts similar to Individual Retirement Accounts, can also be used to enable low-income individuals to pay for post-secondary education. PRWORA authorized states to create community-based IDA programs with TANF block grant funds and to disregard all money saved in IDA accounts in determining eligibility for means-tested government assistance. Use of the savings accrued in IDAs is restricted to post secondary education and training, business capitalization, and home ownership. (See WIN’s webpage on IDA’s http://www.welfareinfo.org/individu.htm). For an in depth discussion of TANF related options currently available to the states, see Greenberg, September 1999.

A variety of options exist outside of TANF as well. Effective use of programs such as Federal Work-Study funds, Pell grants and Welfare-to-Work grants requires moving beyond traditional uses of TANF. Since each program has specific eligibility requirements, agencies may want to consider working with the appropriate program representatives when implementing them. In addition, agencies may want to work with TANF recipients and educational institutions to increase awareness of these programs and to assist TANF recipients in applying for them. They may also want to tailor other support programs to address needs not covered by these programs.

Many times the challenge is to find financial support for student needs in addition to tuition and other education expenses. In Los Angeles, the Department of Children and Family Services provides funds through its Alumni Resource Center to cover the extra supports needed by foster care children who are exiting the system and want to go on to college. Although these students receive aid, after leaving foster care many require additional assistance to cover the costs of books and supplies, or start-up housing. The Center provides the extra supports needed to keep these students in college. Contact: Caroline Christian (310) 642-1672.

What other supports are needed to allow working students to participate in educational programs? The availability of child care and transportation continue to be a key concern for low-income workers. Last October, the Higher Education Act of 1965 was amended to include a provision authorizing the US Department of Education (DOE) to award colleges and universities grants to provide campus-based assistance to low-income parents. Qualifying institutions must have given out more than $350,000 in Pell grant funds in fiscal year 1998. $4.9 million in grants were made to 87 colleges in fiscal year 1999. An additional $5 million has been authorized for fiscal year 2000. The provision authorizes DOE to award grants for a period of four years through the Access Means Parents in School provision (See Committee on Education and the Workforce, September 1999).

The Family Service Agency of San Mateo County California, provides small loans through their Ways to Work program which help eligible family members pay for unexpected expenses that could interfere with their ability to keep a job or stay in school. The San Mateo program is one of twenty such projects replicated around the country. The McKnight Foundation initially implemented the program in Minnesota in 1984. The program became national in 1996 when McKnight partnered with Family Service America (now the Alliance for Children and Families) to create Ways to Work. Ways to Work provides loans of up to $3,000 to be used for cars and car repairs, child care, and housing assistance for low-income workers. In order to be eligible, applicants must be employed or enrolled in vocational education or pursuing post-secondary education. Applicants must also have a nominal amount of disposable income, and demonstrate an ability to make payments. Contact: Carlos Valenzuela, San Mateo County Family Service Agency, (650) 259-1377, or Dan Magnuson, Ways to Work, (800) 221-3726.

The state of Illinois now provides child care assistance for low-income parents currently enrolled in two or four year degree programs. The Non-TANF Education and Training program enables low-income qualifying parents to receive child care assistance while attending classes toward a degree or certificate. Qualifying parents must work at least 10 hours a week. The work requirement may also be satisfied by 20 hours a week of unpaid work required by the participants’ education program, such as student teaching, internship or a combination of paid and unpaid work experience totaling 20 hours a week. Parents, who meet income requirements, may choose who will watch their children and must pay a portion of their costs. There is no minimum number of school hours that a parent must attend to be eligible for assistance. Contact: Anne Wharff, Illinois Department of Human Services, (217) 785-0461.

As mentioned earlier, the final TANF regulations issued in April 1999 allow the states more flexibility in using TANF funds to support post-secondary education. Many low-income workers including former TANF recipients remain eligible for food stamps, transitional Medicaid and other services, but may not be aware of their eligibility. Public agencies may want work in conjunction with local colleges and employers to ensure information about these services is available to low-income students.

Research Findings

As noted in Cohen, 1998, research suggests that people with some college, as well as those who have obtained a degree, earn significantly more than those who have not attended college. According to the American Association of Community Colleges, the median income for an adult with some college was $26,090 in 1996, nearly 29 percent above the earnings of a high school graduate ($22,502). Earnings increased significantly for those with a Bachelor’s degrees ($36,525). This gap in earnings between workers with different educational levels has increased consistently over time (See Gruber, 1998).

Bureau of Labor Statistics research indicates that jobs requiring the least education will experience the slowest professional growth over the next ten years, while the number of jobs requiring at least an associate’s degree is expected to grow 31 percent, faster than all other education categories (See Employment Outlook, 1998-2008, BLS, 1999). While service-producing industries will account for nearly all projected job growth, manufacturing jobs, those that traditionally provided low-skilled workers with the greatest job stability and an opportunity to enhance their skills are expected to decrease. Continuing advances in technology will also influence the employment outlook. Administrative support occupations, including clerical jobs, are projected to grow at a slower rate than the average and slightly slower than in the past, reflecting the impact of office automation. The decrease in jobs available to less skilled workers necessitates ongoing skill development within the workforce. However, fewer TANF recipients are attending college than in some prior periods. A review of applicants for Student Aid (Title IV) in the three years since welfare reform, indicates a decline in the number of applicants who are welfare recipients. Between school years 1996-1997 and 1998-1999 the number applicants reporting AFDC benefits fell from 580,000 to 359,000. This may be due to a decline in the overall number of TANF recipients and/or to a lower percentage of TANF recipients engaged in higher education. It is more difficult to ascertain whether this decrease also affects low-income students in general, but in the same time period, the total number Student Aid applicants increased from 9.3 million to 9.6 million (See Title IV Central Processing System MIS Reports). Enrollment in post-secondary educational institutions tends to decline during favorable economic times when unemployment is low, according to Christopher Shultz of the American Association of Community Colleges.

Community colleges, with their history of providing education to disadvantaged groups and by virtue of their dual function as educational institutions and as training agencies, are an obvious choice as a partner in the provision of skills enhancement. The roles of community colleges in welfare reform are quite varied. Some state TANF plans do not specify a role for community colleges, while others actively promote the involvement of community colleges in education and training. Variation among states encompasses funding also. As noted in Grubb 1999, most states, rather than supporting community college involvement through general funds, have opted to let federal Welfare-to-Work funds flow to local PICS or Workforce Development Boards for use in the design and implementation of programs without the provision of state supplements.

Effective post-secondary programs designed to serve welfare recipients and other low-income workers have been found to incorporate a number of basic principles. They understand the local labor market needs and target jobs with strong employment growth. They are designed to incorporate a mix of remedial and occupational skills training and are job appropriate. They provide bridges or ladders to continuing education and training, and they provide a variety of support services (See Grubb 1999).

Innovative Practices

A pilot program in Pontiac Michigan partnered the local community college with major employers in the area to customize training accommodated with work and paid internships leading to high wage employment. Since waiving the work requirement for participants involved in training for 30 hours a week or more, or in school for at least 10 hours a week, the program now serves low-income workers, not just TANF recipients. Now in its fourth year, the program partners with Xerox, EDS Corporation, and Kelly Services, to assess specific employer needs and provide relevant training. Once skill needs are identified, Oakland Community College creates the training modules. Training lasts for up to 20 weeks. Participants are assessed upon application and those who successfully complete training receive certificates. One employer, Xerox, provides on-the-job training once program graduates are hired. Contact: Sharon Miller (248) 340-6787.

John Wood Community College in Quincy Illinois works in conjunction with local employers to develop training curricula specifically geared to entry-level industry needs. The college uses Welfare-to-Work funds to provide training to the working poor at no cost to participants. The majority of participants are either food service or seasonal workers. With the support of the Illinois Community College Board, input from a local builder, and the area’s largest hospital, two 12-week certificate courses were designed. In addition to providing industry specific training, the courses include soft skills training also tied to employers’ needs. Participants are assessed prior to placement and attend classes offered to coincide with work schedules. Graduates receive a non-credit certificate of completion. Although they are not guaranteed placement, 80 percent of participants have been placed. The program has been in operation since September 1998. Contact: Christina Evans, (217) 224-6564 x 4348.

San Francisco Works, an intermediary organization founded by the local Chamber of Commerce and the San Francisco United Way, facilitates private sector involvement in workforce development. Working with individual employers, staff conduct needs assessments to identify what jobs are going unfilled, the career ladders available to employees, and what can be done to facilitate retention. Once potential employees are assessed and placed, workers receive combined classroom and on-the job training at the worksite. Working with the University of California at San Francisco Hospital, SF Works identified the need for clinical assistant unit coordinators. Participants in the five-month course received both classroom and on-site training, using hospital equipment. SFWorks also initiated a web-based skills upgrading training unit for administrative staff, and is currently working to arrange free on-line access for workers who have home computers, or to encourage employers to provide workers three hours a week to use the self-directed program. Contact: Heather Hiles, (415) 217-5180.

The High Performance Work and Learning Project is an 18 month initiative, up for extension through 2001, sponsored by the National Association of Workforce Boards (NAWB) (formally the National Association of Private Industry Councils), the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC), and Instructional Systems, Inc. The program, which began in late 1998, is funded by a $4.9 million grant from the U.S. Department of Labor. It consolidates the resources of community colleges, the Private Industry Councils (PICs), and employers to provide on-the-job work experience with daily instruction at the place of employment. The program is designed to place 1,113 welfare recipients into high-demand occupations, while simultaneously teaching them computer and basic job skills that will enhance their long-term employment potential. Workers are required to use the learning system for one hour a day for at least ten weeks. PIC case managers and community college educational mentors work with employers to ensure workers successfully complete the training and remain employed. Participating employers provide regular jobs for all new workers and all necessary computers and software. Instructional Systems, Inc. designed the courseware, which integrates literacy, math, and interpersonal skills training with technical skills training. The curricula are based on the needs of employers. Representatives from the PICs work with local welfare offices to identify project participants, who then undergo assessment of their employability status. Currently there are 439 participants in seven cities. Contact: Sally Reis, (202) 289-2987.

California State University at Hayward, through it’s Program for Adult College Education (PACE) program, enables adult working students to earn a B.A. degree while maintaining their full-time jobs. Students with the appropriate transferable units can complete the program in just over two years. The program recruits from local community colleges and works with them to insure that students have completed courses that will transfer. Currently PACE has matriculation agreements with five community colleges. PACE classes are the same as those taken by students pursuing their degrees through the traditional university format. The structured course sequence and the flexible method of delivery enable participants to attend classes on evenings and weekends. Students have access to a free shuttle service that connects with public transportation and the campus has an early childhood center on site. Students are provided 12 to 13 units per quarter and attend class one or two evenings a week and all day Saturday for six to eight weeks. PACE is currently working with the Kensington Research Group and the Oakland School System on a career ladders project that supports Instructional Assistants who wish to continue their education. Through a grant from the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing, students receive financial support to cover the cost of tuition and books. Participating students complete both their B.A. and teaching certificate. For each year of support, students commit to teach for one year within the district once they graduate. Contact: Nancy Sadoyama (510) 885-3274.

In Washington State, the community and technical college system plays a significant role in the implementation of WorkFirst, the state’s welfare program. Four state agencies, including the State Board for Community and Technical Colleges are responsible for the implementation of WorkFirst, which includes post-employment services to assist clients to increase their skills and wages. By providing opportunities for WorkFirst clients to access training while they are working, community and technical colleges play a critical role. The Families that Work and Work-based Leaning Tuition Assistance Program, a component of WorkFirst, provides low-income students who are not eligible for other forms of financial aid with the assistance they need to continue their education. Eligible students are working parents receiving welfare benefits or those with incomes below 175 percent of the poverty level. Work-based Learning Tuition Assistance covers tuition, books, and fees for training linked to an individual’s work goals and career/educational plans. Former welfare recipientsin unsubsidized employment can receive up to three years of tuition and support services. Case managers, WorkFirst coordinators, and financial aid staff are encouraged to share information about the program with students. In the first three quarters of implementation, nearly 1,700 students improved their skills and wages through access to this program, and employers have agreed to make jobs available to those who successfully complete courses. Contact: Dan McConnon (360) 753-0878.

Resource Contacts

American Association of Community Colleges, Contact: James McKenney about local programs, or Christopher Shultz, (202) 728-0200, http://www.aacc.nche.edu

Arizona Board of Regents, Contact: Dr. Linda Blessing, (602) 229-2506

California Community Colleges Chancellors Office CalWORKs Unit, Contact: Judy Reichle, (916) 324-2353, http://www.cccco.edu/cccco/ss/CalWORKs.htm

California State University, Los Angeles campus, Contact: Jim Kelly, (320) 343-4608; Hayward campus, Contact: Bob Brauer, (510) 885-3877

Center for Employment Training, San Jose, California, Contact: Max Martinez, (408) 534-5433, or Linda Luther, (408) 287-7924, http://www.best.com/~cfet/facts.htm

Center for Law and Social Policy, Contact: Julie Strawn or Lisa Plimpton, (202) 328-5140, http://www.clasp.og

Central Texas Workforce Development Board, Belton TX, Contact: Linda Angel, (254) 939-3771, ext. 324, linda@belton.ct.cog.tx.us

National Alliance of Business, Contact: Tom Lindsley, VP Policy, (202) 289-2888, lindsleyt@nab.com

National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, Contact: Linda Kay Benning, (202) 202-478-6040, http://www.nasulgc.nche/WelfareMainPg.htm

National Center on Poverty Law, Contact: Wendy Pollack. (312) 263-3830, wendypollack@povertylaw.org

National Governors’ Association, Contact: Susan Golonka or Rebecca Brown, (202) 624-5300, http://www.nga.org

University Continuing Education Association, Contact: Beth Blanchard Schaeffer, (202) 659-3130, bschaeffer@nucea.edu

University of Maryland, Department of Family Studies, Contact: Bonnie Braun, (302) 405-3581

U. S. Department of Education, Contact Jon Weintraub, Director, Office of Policy Analysis, (202) 205-5602


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Strawn, Julie, and Robert Echols, Welfare-to-Work Programs, the Critical Role of Skills, Center for Law and Social Policy, April 1999, http://www.clasp.org/pubs/jobseducation/skillspapere.htm

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program (TANF) Final Rule, Federal Register:

(Vol.64, No. 69), pages 17719-17768, April 12, 1999, http://gpo.lib.purdue.edu/bin/GPOAccess.cgi

U.S. Department of Education, Federal Student Aid Applicants Reporting AFDC Benefits, Student Aid Applicant Processing System, 9/22/99, U.S. Department of Education, (202) 502-7822

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Helping Families Achieve Self-Sufficiency, A Guide on Funding Services for Children and Families through the TANF Program, Office of Family Assistance, Administration for Children and Families, Spring 1999, http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/ofa/funds2.htm

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Program: Second Annual Report to Congress, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, August 1999, see Introduction and Chapter 4, http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/opre/tanifreports/tan19995.pdf

U.S. Department of Labor, Employment Outlook-1998-2008, Washington, D.C., Bureau of Labor Statistics 1999, (202) 606-7828.

The author thanks the many individuals who assisted her with the information and contents of this paper, especially Julie Strawn, Beth Schaffer and Bonnie Braun.

The Welfare Information Network is supported by grants from the Annie E. Casey Foundation, the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation, the Ford Foundation, the Woods Fund of Chicago, the McKnight Foundation, the Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and the U.S. Department of Labor