Employer Practices That Increase Retention And Advancement
By Susan R.
The implementation of welfare reform and the
Workforce Investment Act and has helped thousands of low-income individuals
join the workforce. However, many welfare leavers obtain jobs with low
wages, lack of health benefits, and few opportunities for career
advancement. As a result, helping those with jobs to stay employed and
attain a family-supporting wage remains a key challenge for public agencies.
Employer programs and policies play a critical role
in job retention and advancement. This Issue Note provides guidance to
states and localities on recognizing employer best practices, partnering
with employers and agencies, targeting employers, and funding availability.
It builds on earlier Issue Notes on retention and advancement, available at
Why is it essential to leverage employer involvement
in retention and career advancement efforts? The successful long-term placement of the
employee at her job is largely dependent on the organizational practices of
the employer. Involving employers in retention and advancement efforts can
result in decreased costs for agencies as a result of fewer individuals
returning to TANF and reusing job placement resources.
Engaging employers will enable more low-income
workers to access training and advancement opportunities. Low-wage workers
often do not take advantage of training opportunities after job placement,
due to both the challenges of balancing work with family obligations as well
as eagerness to cease relying on public resources associated with welfare.
Finally, strong workforce agency-employer
partnerships enhance the visibility and credibility of welfare-to-work
efforts.Since a region’s
ability to attract and retain firms and industries is linked to the presence
of a skilled labor supply, targeted efforts focused on the skill development
of workers will likely garner more public support for the workforce system.
What organizational “best practices” policies and
programs should agencies consider when targeting employers for
welfare-to-work placement efforts? Several employer policies and programs have been shown to be effective
for increasing employee retention and promoting career advancement in
general (Buckingham and Coffman, 1999) and for low-wage workers in
Effective Selection Tools.
Careful attention to job placement increases retention by ensuring an
optimal fit between the applicant and the skills and aptitude required for
the job. The first step is to clearly define critical skills and
organizational attributes required for success. Then validated selection
tools such as aptitude tests, skill assessments, behaviorally-based
structured interviews, and job try-outs can be used to screen applicants.
Meaningful Work. Assessments and aptitude tests can help
ensure that clients are placed in jobs that are aligned with their interests
and result in perceptions of meaningful work.Opportunities to learn and grow increase motivation in the current
job and prepare workers for future advancement opportunities.
Opportunities to Learn and Grow
·Training. In order to meet the criteria for promotion, workers need opportunities
to learn the skills necessary for advancement. Formal classroom training can
be combined with on-the-job learning to increase transfer of learning to the
·Career Ladders. Internal career ladders have become less prevalent as a result of the
outsourcing of non-core functions to specialized firms. As a result, more
employers are involved in sector or industry based career ladders to meet
specific skills needs. Employers who participate in career ladders find that
workers in entry-level jobs are more motivated to succeed at their current
job because it will make them eligible for advancement (Mills & Prince,
2003). Whether internal or external, career ladders should outline
opportunities for promotion and advancement, and clearly define the skills,
credentials, and experience necessary for moving into a new position.
·Mentoring. Mentoring programs match new workers with more experienced coworkers.
This relationship provides new hires with the job, interpersonal, and
organizational skills to help them be effective on the job (Prince, 2003).
Mentors facilitate a smooth transition into the workforce and can help new
workers view jobs as a first step in a career path.
Research has shown that employee retention is most highly correlated with
the relationship with the immediate supervisor. Managers who set clear
expectations, provide opportunities for employees to use their talents,
allow input into decision making, and care about their employees increase
retention (Buckingham & Coffman, 1999). Employers can foster excellent
supervision by providing training to front-line managers and by rewarding
clients at firms that pay higher wages than their competitors decreases the
likelihood of turnover and puts clients on a faster track toward economic
self-sufficiency. Compensation strategies that link pay to performance, such
as performance bonuses, profit-sharing, and employee stock ownership plans,
keep employees motivated and provide more opportunities to learn new skills.
Pay-for-skills rewards employees for learning new job-related skills. Some
employers provide incentives for participating in job-related training that
leads to advancement.
Family Friendly Benefits.
Benefits that make it easier for employees to balance work with family
obligations have been shown to increase productivity, reduce absenteeism and
lower turnover rates. Providing on-site or near-site daycare programs, sick
childcare options, or childcare referral options helps overcome one of the
major barriers to employment for low-wage workers. Flextime is often
critical for single parents who are struggling with childcare
responsibilities. It also affords workers the opportunity to take advantage
of training and education to upgrade their skills.Employers who
offer tuition reimbursement are more likely to retain workers, especially
younger, non-management women who have achieved lower education levels (CAEL,
What types of retention and advancement services can
agencies provide to employers?
State and local agencies can offer the following
support services to help employers implement and reinforce retention and
advancement practices outlined above:
Job Placement. Agencies can provide selection services
tailored to individual employer needs. Public agencies can add immediate
value to the selection process by helping companies attract a large pool of
qualified candidates by advertising and posting job openings, sponsoring job
fairs, and offering pre-employment job readiness and skills training. They
can also increase the likelihood of long-term job-person fit by conducting
job and skill analyses, administering skill and aptitude assessments,
conducting reference checks and employment verifications, and referring the
best qualified candidates.
Incumbent Worker Training.
States and localities can work with employers in several ways to expand
training opportunities for incumbent workers. For a review of training
strategies, including increasing access to training and funding options, see
“Incumbent Worker Training for Low Wage Workers”, available at http://www.financeprojectinfo.org/Publications/incumbentworkertrainingIN.htm
Training for Supervisors.
By learning coaching skills, supervisors can provide opportunities for
workers to use their talents on the job and help them achieve their career
goals. Training for front-line supervisors should focus on setting goals,
providing effective feedback, and recognizing good performance. Diversity
and second language training can help supervisors manage a multicultural
Career Ladders. Agencies, in conjunction with employer
association and unions, can support the development and implementation of
career ladders. By gathering employer information regarding skill needs,
links can be formed between jobs across occupations or industries. The
process involves identifying the skills acquired at one level of employment
and matching them with the skills required at a higher level. Then job
seekers are matched with job vacancies (Mills and Prince, 2003). Agencies
can also offer new hires the support, education, and training services
needed to ensure that the match succeeds.
Mentor Programs. Agencies can help employers set up effective
mentoring programs. Services may entail determining whether a mentoring
program is appropriate, aiding in program development, selecting and
training mentors, matching mentors with mentees, and creating incentives for
Career Counselors and Case Management
Following initial job placement, agencies can provide ongoing case
management to ensure that new workers have the support they need to remain
on the job. It may be advantageous to provide case management by using an
Employee Assistance Plan (EAP) provider. This allows employees to obtain
confidential counseling on non-work issues such as substance abuse or
Information on Work and Financial Supports.
Agencies can help employers educate workers about the availability of
government subsidies and supports such as EITC, food stamps, healthcare,
childcare, and transportation. For more information, see “Work Supports
for Low-Income Working Families” available at http://www.financeprojectinfo.org/publications/worksupportsIN.htm
What strategies should WIA and TANF agencies use to
partner with employers to support retention and career advancement efforts?
Given the common goals of WIA and TANF agencies, most states have made
efforts to coordinate services offered to job seekers. Integration also
allows for an enhanced ability to focus on retention and advancement
efforts, as a result of increased efficiencies and combining funding
streams. Agencies might consider the following strategies when forming
partnerships with employers:
·Conduct a needs Assessment. In order to effectively serve employers, agencies
need to become aware of how they can be of assistance. As a first step,
agencies can conduct an employer needs assessment on the types of retention
and advancement services they would find valuable, job skill requirements,
and the retention potential of the job (Freeman and Combes Taylor, 2002).
·Appoint Employer Account Representatives.
Establish a single point of contact for employer customers, ideally with a
staff member with experience in the employer’s industry. These liaisons
can foster ongoing relationships with employers by communicating information
about funding and services, convening employers to share best practices, and
providing informational training sessions.
·Aggressively Market Retention and Advancement Services.
Employers need to understand the business benefits and cost-savings of
retention and placement strategies. Research has shown that the employer
policies and programs outlined above designed to increase employee skill
levels and firm loyalty, simultaneously increases firm competitiveness and
and see www.workforceadvantage.org).
Providing information about the cost of turnover (typically estimated at one
to one and a half times the annual salary for an entry level worker) can
serve as a powerful motivator for employers. Employer account
representatives can increase outreach by networking with employers at
chambers of commerce, employer associations, civic organizations, and human
·Integrate Retention and Advancement with Placement Efforts.
Initial job placements with employers can be leveraged into opportunities to
provide additional services. For example, agencies can provide
post-employment wrap-around services such as case management and incumbent
worker training. Improved integration is critical for both job seekers and
employers. From the job seeker perspective, better integration enables
individuals to pursue long term career goals when each educational offering
is part of a an overall career strategy (Poppe, Strawn, and Martinson,
2003). From the employer’s point of view, a one-stop provider makes it
easier to work with the workforce development system, increasing its overall
·Use Intermediaries. Intermediaries who have established relationships with employers, such
as local chambers of commerce and employer associations, have the necessary
credibility to deliver further services. For example, employer associations
who are providing job placement services for employers may also be qualified
to deliver training classes or offer mentoring services. Community-based
intermediaries typically have credibility with low-income clients as well,
making it more likely that they will access retention and advancement
·Make Services Accessible. Services should be located at or near the employment
site and accessible by public transportation.Training provided at the worksite leads to higher rates of
participation by workers and that state-funded employer-focused training for
incumbent workers raises earnings and retention (Poppe et al, 2003).
·Market services to all levels in the Organization
Buy-in for retention services from top-management, human resources, and
front-line supervisors is critical for successful implementation of programs
(Hamilton, 2003). Such buy-in will help ensure that organizational systems
and resources will support retention and advancement efforts. To increase
the likelihood the services will be used by low-wage workers, these
employees need to understand the benefits of participating in opportunities
such as training or mentoring programs.
·Measure Customer Satisfaction Programs and services should be regularly evaluated
by employers. Feedback on the satisfaction surveys should be provided to
employers, followed by a plan for continuous improvement.
Improving collaboration between TANF agencies and
one-stops is an important prerequisite before agencies can take the
operational steps necessary to implement these services. For more
information on interagency collaboration, see “Improving Collaboration
between Welfare and Workforce Development Agencies”, available at
Which employers should agencies target for placement
based on their potential for retention and advancement?
Companies that use some or all of the best practices programs mentioned
previously are often recognized as employers of choice by the media or other
local organizations. For example, many states and cities publish “Best
Places to Work” lists in local publications. By targeting these employers
for job placement, WIA and TANF agencies increase the chance of long-term
success on the job. On a national level, some of the available lists
“The Fortune 100 Best Companies to Work For”
annual list is
based on the survey produced by the Great Places to Work Institute, which
bases its rankings on the employee-boss relationship (including trust,
integrity, and fairness), pride in work, and relationships with co-workers.Companies listed on the 100 best companies to work for consistently
outperform the S&P 500, receive twice the number of applications, and
have half the turnover rate as their competitors. They are also more likely
to offer their reward and training programs to hourly personnel instead of
reserving these benefits for professionals and management.
The Great Places to Work Institute is also producing
a list of “Best Small and Medium Companies to Work For”, which will be
published in HR Magazine.
The Inner City 100 is a listing of 100 of the fastest
growing companies that are creating jobs and economic sustainability for
inner city residents.These
companies have been identified by the Initiative for a Competitive Inner
City and are published in Inc. Magazine. Best practices of the Inner City
100 are presented at www.workforceadvantage.org.
Of particular importance to low-wage parents, Working
Mother Magazine publishes an annual list of “The 100 Best Companies for
Working Mothers”, available at
Working Mother magazine has recently initiated a list
of Best Companies for Women of Color, which places particular emphasis on
recognizing companies that promote the advancement of women of color into
professional and leadership positions
While placing clients with these choice employers is
desirable, a potential drawback is that the availability of jobs at these
companies is limited. By targeting top employers in their marketing efforts,
agencies may increase the chances of placement for their clients.
What resources are available to support
employer-based retention and advancement efforts, and how should they be
Under current WIA and TANF regulations, availability of funding for
employer-based practices depends on the type of policy or program. Most
funding resources are designated for job placement activities, incumbent
worker training, and work supports. However, by blending funding streams,
financing may be available to support employer programs such as supervisory
training and career ladders.
Blended funding streams allow agencies to serve all
clients, whether or not they are TANF recipients, making investing in these
services more palatable to employers. For example, the financing for career
ladders may come from a variety of sources, often combining state and
federal resources for TANF and workforce development. Funds may also come
from state resources for pre-employment training, tuition assistance, and
higher education.Findings from
MDRC’s Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) evaluation suggested
that TANF and Welfare-to-Work grants were critical for forging WIA-TANF
linkages and for funding retention and advancement efforts (Anderson &
While most sources of funding have been set aside for
the training of entry-level workers, in some cases funding is available for
supervisory training. For example, California’s Employment Training Panel
(ETP) program has funds available for management training and small-business
owner skills training (http://www.etp.ca.gov/).
The New York Department of Labor
Some employers may be persuaded to make investments
in effective workplace practices if those investments are matched by public
funding. For example, employers may not be able to obtain funding for
performance-based compensation practices. However, public funds may be
available to train workers on continuous improvement and teamwork, which are
important for the successful implementation of these compensation
In some cases, financial support may be available
from private foundations. Given the relevance of employer practices to both
workforce and economic development, several national and local foundations
have supported demonstration projects related to retention and advancement
of entry-level workers.
provides a summary of public funding available for recruiting and training
of low-wage workers and TANF recipients on their website (available at
Information is available on accessing wage subsidies and tax credits for
hiring welfare recipients as well as sources for public funding for
incumbent worker training. The site also includes keys to success for
accessing public funding and case examples of companies using public funding
for their workplace practices.
While research is limited, a few studies have
examined the role of employment practices in promoting retention and
advancement for low-income workers. Overall, these studies provide support
for the importance of promoting employer best practices.
One of MDRC’s 15 Employment Retention and
Advancement (ERA) sites is dedicated to examining the impact of employer
practices. Researchers are exploring the effectiveness of the Achieve
program in Cleveland, which involves the provision of retention and
advancement services for low-wage employees at long-term nursing facilities
(Hamilton, 2003). Eleven firms were randomly assigned to receive services
(including one-on-one case management, informational lunch-and-learn
sessions, and training for front-line supervisors) and another eleven were
randomly assigned to a control group. Program effectiveness will be measured
by examining firm-wide turnover rate comparisons in addition to
individual-based retention rates for low-wage workers. Preliminary findings
reveal that employers and employees voice differing reasons for job turnover
amongst low-wage workers: While employers report that turnover is the result
of the difficult nature of the work, low pay, childcare, and transportation
concerns, employees report that turnover is primarily due to the work
environment, not the pay.Good
work environments were described as ones where there was a good relationship
with a supervisor, the work gave personal fulfillment, and on-the-job
experience was obtained. Preliminary findings suggest that within the first
30 days after the start of the study, data suggest that entry-level workers
in the firms receiving Achieve, compared to those in the non-Achieve firms,
were about 10% more likely to have retained their original jobs.
Retention gains, however, appear to get smaller over time, particularly by
180 days after study start. A report on the Cleveland program will be
available at the end of 2004.
A recent study from the Education Development Center
explored employment practices that make a firm more likely to retain former
TANF recipients (Jurist Levy, 2003). The study uses Welfare-to-Work (WtW)
program data and data gathered from interviews in 17 Massachusetts firms
that hired WtW participants. Part one of the study examines the impact of
wages on retention while controlling for personal, regional, and industry
factors. Part two of the study compares the policies and practices of high-
and low-retention firms with regard to opportunities to learn and advance,
and the nature of frontline supervision. Although higher placement wages
were significant predictors of retention, wages alone did not explain the
retention of welfare workers. High-retention firms were more likely to make
investments in their entry-level workforce, including 1) creating structures
to help new workers acclimate to their job and work environment; 2)
providing equal access to training and advancement opportunities; and 3)
providing training for supervisors, which often included bilingual skills
and diversity training. Attitudes toward low-skilled workers, firm capacity,
and industry factors contributed to employers' willingness and capacity to
make such investments.
As part of a three-year longitudinal study, The
Initiative for a Competitive Inner City (ICIC) surveyed 173 non-managerial
workers who worked at seven inner-city firms to chart their occupational,
educational, and family outcomes over time (Newman and Attewell, 2003). Of
the nearly 11% who had voluntarily left their jobs after the first year, the
most common reasons cited for leaving were to look for higher wages and more
opportunities for promotion and advancement. The authors did not find
differences in turnover rates, wage changes, or promotions between companies
designated as “high road” (those that offered comparatively higher pay,
more commitment to training, and promotion from within) and those designated
as “low road”.However the
authors pointed out that this may be due to the fact that only one firm was
designated as low road, or that firms classified as “high” on certain
characteristics were not as high as initially seemed the case.
The Manufacturing Institute/Center for Workforce
Success is supporting three Retention and Advancement Demonstration (RAD)
projects in Hartford, Detroit, and Pittsburgh. The projects are examining
the impact of leveraging employer organizations to upgrade human resources
practices for small and medium-sized manufacturing firms. Three employer
associations recruited 17 companies and conducted skills and organizational
needs assessments at each firm. They then helped implement practices such as
new selection tools, improved orientations, skills training, ESL classes,
financial literacy, and access to caseworkers. Anecdotal evidence suggests
that many firms have seen increased productivity, improved morale, better
communication, and improved skills. The researchers concluded that long-term
job success is dependent on early work experiences that are welcoming,
developmental, and supportive. An evaluation by Abt Associates will
be available in early 2004 and is intended to include quantitative
measures of absenteeism, productivity, promotions, and turnover.
Pending funding, the project may continue throughout 2004. For more
information, contact Basil Whiting at 718-935-0351.
showcases innovative workforce development best practices utilized by
fastest growing inner-city companies at the ICIC-Inc. Magazine Inner City
100. A partnership between Jobs for the Future (JFF) and the Initiative for
a Competitive Inner City (ICIC), Workforce Advantage launched a multi-year
workforce development program which aims to identify, encourage, and
disseminate best practices. These companies use strategies that both
increase competitiveness and enhance the skills and earning potential of
entry-level workers. Promising practices and tools are reviewed at www.workforceadvantage.org,
including key strategies for success, case study
examples, and funding resources.
The Wisconsin Department of Workforce Development
sponsors the Workforce Attachment and Advancement program. This program
provides grants to Wisconsin Works agencies and Workforce Development Boards
to assist low-income families and non-custodial parents find employment,
remain attached to the workforce, and advance to higher paying employment.
Program services include direct assistance to job seekers in addition to
services to employers Services to employers include job development and
placement, assessing workplace training needs, skills training for incumbent
workers, coaching and mentoring services, arranging support services, and
creating upward mobility programs. The program is funded by the Temporary
Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant and serves adults with
family incomes at or below 200% of the Federal Poverty Level. For more
information, contact Eduardo Saenz at Eduardo.Saenz@dwd.state.wi.usor see http://www.dwd.state.wi.us/waa/.
The Washington DC One-Stop partnered with CVS
Pharmacy to create a full service hiring, training, and retention program
located in the One-Stop. The program houses a prototype unit of a mock CVS
store and pharmacy, and provides training through the director level. Since
1996 it has hired over 18,000 people on public assistance, with a retention
rate of 70%. Many of those employees have been promoted at least once, some
up to three or four times. Non-profit, city and community based
organizations provide key hiring and retention services, including
post-employment job coaches that follow-up with new associates for up to one
year. CVS provides a specific path and clear specifications for promotion,
and “upgrade” training is available for the store’s departments. The
initial center has been replicated in Detroit, Atlanta, New York, Baltimore,
and New Jersey. The project is funded by WIA, TANF, and CVS. For more
information, contact Steve Wing at (330)
The Workforce Development Council of Seattle-King
County partnered with the Washington State Hospital Association to
address labor shortages facing the hospital industry. They launched the
Career Pathways initiative, which involves placing career specialists from
the one-Stop onsite at local hospitals. These specialists, who are supplied
by an intermediary, provide skill assessments, individualized career
planning, job search training, and guidance on accessing funding. Career
specialists also link hospital staff with customized training programs
offered by local technical and community colleges. As workers progress,
their vacancies are linked to one-stop centers who assist in backfill
placement. Career Pathways funding comes from Jobs for the Future's Pathways
to Advancement initiative, Community Jobs, WIA, H1B, and Industries of the
Future Skills Training as well as matching funds from the hospital. For more
information, contact Ed Phippen at email@example.com
Through a grant from the Department of Labor, the Welfare
to Work Partnership has established Business Resource Centers in
Washington D.C., New York, Miami, and Chicago. These centers partner with
businesses to assess workforce needs and develop customized solutions.
Working through intermediaries, they implement training programs (e.g., ESL
and financial literacy), retention programs, and career ladders. They also
help employers leverage federal and state financial resources that are
underutilized by the business community. For more information, contact
Thressa Connor-McMahon at (202) 955-3005 or see http://www.welfaretowork.org/.
The Department of Labor has established a Business
Relations Group to implement its “E3”strategy, which
involves integrating employment, education, and economic development. E3
focuses on creating demand-driven partnerships with industry and economic
development entities. The Business Relations Group brokers connections between multi-state
national employers and local and state workforce agencies to meet businesses
human resource needs. This strategy increases retention:Many national employers have found that retention rates are higher
for employees hired through the one-stop system. In order to build capacity,
the Business Relations Group is helping high performing one-stops share best
practices for business services with other one-stops. For more information,
contact Gay Gilbert at 202 693-3949.
For More Information…
Department of Labor Employment and Training Administration, contact Kevin
Thompson at 202-693-2925.
Development Center, contact Abigail Jurist Levy at (617) 969-7100, ext. 2437
or visit www.edc.org.
for the Future, contact Jerry Rubin at (617) 728-4446 or see www.jff.org.
Lewin Group, contact Mike Fishman at 703-269-5655 or visit www.lewin.com.
contact Gayle Hamilton at (212) 532-3200 or see www.mdrc.org.
Governor’s Association, contact Steve Crawford at 202/624-5394
or visit www.nga.org
Anderson, Jacquelyn and Martinson, Karin. Service
Delivery and Institutional Linkages: Early Implementation Experiences of
Employment Retention and Advancement Programs. New York: MDRC, 2003.
Available at http://www.mdrc.org/publications/356/overview.html.
Buckingham, Marcus & Coffman, Curt. First,
Break All the Rules: What the World’s Greatest Managers Do Differently.
New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999. Available at http://www.amazon.com.
Council for Adult and Experiential Learning. The
Impact of Training and Development on Recruitment and Retention. Chicago.
Fishman, Michael E., Burt S. Barnow, Karen N.
Gardiner, Barbara J. Murphy, and Stephanie A. Laud. Job Retention and
Advancement among Welfare Recipients: Challenges and Opportunities. Falls
Church, VA: The Lewin Group, January 1999. Available at
Freeman, Jennifer and Judith Combes Taylor. Beyond
Welfare-to-Work: Helping Low-Income Workers Maintain Their Jobs and Advance
in the Workforce: Paper #1: Demand-Led Retention.Boston: Jobs for the Future, 2002. Available at http://www.jff.org/jff/kc/library/0008.
Jobs for the Future. Hiring, Retaining, and
Advancing Front-Line Workers: A Guide to Successful Human Resources
Practices. Workforce Innovation Networks, 2003. Available at
Jurist Levy, Abigail. Employers who have Retained
Welfare Workers: How are they Different From the Rest? Newton, Mass:
Education Development Center. Presented at the National Association for
Welfare and Research Statistics Conference, July 2003. To obtain a copy,
contact Abigail Jurist Levy at (617) 969-7100, ext. 2437.
Hamilton, Gayle. Involving Employers in Job
Retention and Advancement for Low-Income Workers: An Innovative Program in
Cleveland. MDRC: Presented at the National Association for Welfare and
Research Statistics Conference, July 2003. To obtain a copy, contact Gayle
Hamilton at (212) 532-3200.
Mills, Jack and Heath Prince. Employer-Led
Organizations and Career Ladders: Linking Worker Advancement with the Skill
Needs of Employers. Boston, Mass: Jobs for the Future, 2003. See http://www.jff.org/jff/kc/library/0045.
Newman, Katherine and Paul Attewell. Inner City
Workers: Follow-Up Report: Year 1. Boston, MA: Initiative for a
Competitive Inner City, 2003. For more information, contact Nanette Dyer
Blake at (617) 292-2383.
Poppe, Nan, Julie Strawn, and Karin Martinson. Whose
Job Is It? Creating Opportunities for Advancement. DC: Center for Law
and Social Policy, 2003. Available at
Advantage. The Workforce Advantage: An Audio Conference on Successful
Practices. Co-hosted by the Intitiative for a Competive Inner City and
Jobs for the Future, March 27, 2003. Available at http://www.icic.org/research/pubs_and_studies.asp
Welfare Information Network is supported by grants form the Annie E. Casey
Foundation, the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation, the David and Lucile
Packard Foundation, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation and the Ford